How to Use Endnotes


All of the information contained on this page is adjusted by me, albeit with help from Diana Hacker's The Bedford Handbook. So, this information will stand for my class, and should be tolerable in general, but it is NOT THE OFFICIAL FORM.

An endnote is a reference mark that allows your reader to find the source of the information noted. Endnotes are placed at the end of the sentence, after the period, in which the noteworthy information appears. The endnotes themselves are numbers, usually superscripted (which means slightly raised up), but simply in parentheses if you canít manage to superscript. The endnote numbers refer to a list on the endnote page. Each item in the list on the endnote page is numbered. All of the sources endnoted also appear in the Works Cited page. So, if your endnoting is done properly, your reader can find the exact source where you found your information.

How to actually use endnotes:


Step 1 - Write the paper.

This may seem obvious, but depending on how you write your paper this can make a difference.

If you write on a computer that automatically keeps track of your endnotes, as most word processing programs will, you donít even have to worry. You just toss in your endnotes and the computer keeps track of them.

If you hand write your essay or donít know how to make your word processor do the endnotes, then you should write the paper first and then put the endnotes in at the finishing stage. Simply go through and place your numbers after each sentence where an endnoteable piece of information lies. Doing this at the end will save you the trouble of having to renumber your endnotes if you change something.


Step 2 - Put in the endnote numbers.

Again, if you have a word processor program that you know how to use, you simply use the proper menu item to stick the marker in.

If you are writing by hand, you will have to do one of the two following things:

A) Put a superscripted number (a number raised slightly above the line) at the end of the sentence, outside of the period, where the endnoteable information lies.
B) Put a number in parentheses after the sentence where the information you want endnoted lies.

Example with superscript:

The essential point, as Gramsci sees it, is that, "Every Social Group, coming into existence on the original terrain of an essential function in the world of economic production, creates together with itself, organically, one or more strata of intellectuals which give it homogeneity and an awareness of its own function not only in the economic but also in the social and political fields."1

NOTE: That number "1" at the end of the sentence there may or may not be raised up above the line depending on what browser you are using. If it is just lying on the line, imagine it floating up about half its own hight. That is superscripted.

Example with number in parentheses:

Hassí vision of the Bay Area Pacific is that, I wonít say much for the sea except that it was, almost, the color of sour milk.(2)


Step 3 - Make the Endnotes page.

This page should be titled, as if you couldnít guess, "Endnotes." Then, put a list of numbers matching the numbers of your endnotes down the page.

Each number should be followed by the following information: Authorís last name, Title of source (matching form in Works Cited page), Page number.


Ford, Rock Springs, p.52.


Step 4 - Relax in the knowledge that you are a good human.

You have now given the people upon whose work you have leaned ample credit for their work. You have also given your reader a clear picture of where to go to find information. If you are luckily, you will one day benefit from these same good habits.

So, the page should look something like this:



     1. Gramsci, Prison Notebooks, p.5. 
     2. Hass, Field Guide, p.3. 
     3. Gourevitch, "Letter from Rwanda - After the Genocide," 
     4. Tel, "Why are territory points better than capture 
     5. Musil, The Man Without Qualities, p. 851.